DCI – Beijing Rules 9

Defence for Children International

Beijing Rules


The presumption of innocence is applicable to all juveniles. Further

procedural safeguards should be guaranteed: the right to be notified of the

charges, the right to remain silent, the right to legal representation, the

right to the presence of a parent or guardian, the right to call and

cross-examine witnesses and the right of appeal. These provisions represent the

minimum elements for a fair and just trial and should be read in conjunction

with the provisions governing penal proceedings in both the Convention on the

Rights of the Child and the International Covenant on Civil and Political


Protection of Privacy